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单选题①CatherineStimpsoncallsforareassessmentofliterarymeritbasedonaffectivestandards—onhowliteraryworksmakereadersfeel—ratherthanontheaestheticstandardstraditionallyusedtodefinethecanon,thebodyofliteraryworksgenerallyacceptedas"great".②Stimpsonadvocatesanalterativeparacanonforliteraryworks,suchasLouisaMayAlcott'sLittleWomen,becauseshebelievessuchworkshavebeenunjustifiablyneglectedbyunsympatheticscholars.③AccordingtoStimpson,aparacanonicalworkmayormaynothaveliteraryvaluebytraditionalstandards;rather,itsworthconsistsinits"capacitytoinspirelove."①ElizabethBarnescriticizesStimpson'sapproachassubjectiveandthereforeuncritical.②"AlthoughStimpsonneveractuallydefines'love,'sheimpliesthatalovableworkisonethatsoengagesthereaderthatitsworldviewbecomesinseparablefromthereader'sown"(StimpsonacknowledgesthatthevaluesreflectedinLittleWomenmayhavesubconsciouslyinfluencedherinventionoftheparacanon).③ForBarnes,theconflationofethicsandaestheticsimplicitinStimpson'sapproach(inwhich"good"canrefertosomethingmorallysoundand/oraboveaverageinquality)demonstratestheambiguityinherentinsuchconceptsasgoodnessandlove.
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单选题Thehullsofthedeep-seasubmersiblesofthefuturewillbeconstructedfromglass,notfromspecialsteeloraluminumalloys.Thereasonisthatmetalshaveagrainymicroscopicstructure,whichmakesmetalhullssusceptibletocrackingbetweenthegrainsunderdeep-seapressures.Glasshullsareimmunetothisproblembecauseglass,thoughasolidinappearance,canbeconsideredafluidbecauseitflowswhenunderpressure.Whichofthefollowingcanbemostreliablyinferredfromthepassageabove?______
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单选题 Upon maturity
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单选题①Therehavebeennumerouswell-documentedextinctionsofindigenousspeciescausedbytheintroductionofnon-indigenouspredatorsandpathogens.②However,surprisinglyfewextinctionsofindigenousspeciescanbeattributedtocompetitionfromintroducedspecies.③Forexample,duringthepast400years,4,000plantspecieshavebeenintroducedintoNorthAmerica,andthesenon-indigenousplantscurrentlyaccountfornearly20percentofNorthAmerica'splantspecies.④YetthatnoevidenceexiststhatanyindigenousNorthAmericanplantspeciesbecameextinctasaresultofcompetitionfromnewspeciescouldmeanthatsuchextinctionstakelongertooccurthanscientistsinitiallybelievedor,alternatively,thatextinctionsarerarelycausedbycompetitionfromnon-indigenousspecies.
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单选题Orcasaresmallwhalesthatgenerallytravelingroupscalledpods.Orcasthatfeedonmarinemammalstravelinverysmallpods,whilethosethatfeedonfishtravelinrelativelylargepods.Sincealargerpodhasanincreasedcollectiveabilitytolocateprey,itislikelythatorcasthatfeedonmammalstravelinsmallpodsonlybecausethemammalsthattheyhuntcanmoreeasilydetectalargepodandescapeit.Whichofthefollowing,iftrue,moststronglyindicatesthattheconclusionistoosweeping?______
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单选题Falserumorsoffiscalimproprietiesdamagethereputationofabank.Ifmanagementdoesnotattempttorefutetheserumors,theywillcirculateandeventuallydestroycustomerconfidence.Butifmanagementmakesanefforttorefutethem,therefutationwillraisemoresuspicionsthanitallays.Ifallofthestatementsabovearetrue,whichofthefollowingmustonthebasisofthembetrue?______
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单选题①AttemptstoidentifyNewGuinean'shunter-gatherersfacethewell-knowndifficultyofdefiningwhatconstitutesahunter-gathergroup.②Accordingtothecommondefinition,hunter-gathersarethosewhosubsistbyhuntingwildanimalsandgatheringwildplants.③Yetthosecriteriabegnumerousquestions,includingtheissueofwhatconstitutes"wild".④Theverypresenceonalandscapeofhumanswhoareconsumersaffectsfoodresources,blurringthelinesbetweenwildanddomesticatedand,hencebetweenhuntingandpastoralism,andbetweengatheringandcultivation.⑤Moreover,itisunclearhowgroupsshouldbeclassifiedthatarehunter-gatherersintheirprocurementstrategiesbutthatmakeuseofpastoralismandcultivationintheirconsumptionpatterns––subsisting,forexample,bytradingwildfoodstoneighborsinreturnfordomesticatedcrops.
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单选题①Mostseismologistsassumethatfollowingamajorearthquakeanditsaftershocks,thefault(abreakinEarth'scrustwherepressurecantriggeranearthquake)willremainquietuntilstresseshavetimetorebuild,typicallyoverhundredsorthousandsofyears.②Recentevidenceofsubtleinteractionsbetweenearthquakesmayoverturnthisassumption,however.③Accordingtothestress-triggeringhypothesis,faultsareunexpectedlyresponsivetosubtlestressestheyacquireasneighboringfaultsshift.④Ratherthansimplydissipating,stressrelievedduringanearthquaketravelsalongthefault,concentratinginsitesnearby;eventhesmallestadditionalstressesmaythentriggeranotherquakealongthefaultoronanearbyfault.⑤Althoughscientistshavelongviewedsuchsubtleinteractionsasnonexistent,thehypothesishasexplainedthelocationandfrequencyofearthquakesfollowingseveraldestructivequakesinCalifornia,Japan,andTurkey.
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单选题①MacArthurandWilsonsuggestedthatthebiodiversityofanislandwillvaryindirectproportiontoafunctionoftheisland'ssize(i.e.,largerislandscansupportagreaternumberofspecies)andininverseproportiontoafunctionofitsdistancefromthemainland(i.e.,manyremoteislandswilltendtosupportfewerspecies).②Reducedbiodiversityinanislandcontextislikelytorequiresignificantadaptationonthepartofcolonizinghumanpopulations.③Evansarguesthatthislimitationmakesislandsideallaboratoriesforthestudyofhumanadaptationstothenaturalenvironment,whilstRenfrewandWagstaff,intheintroductiontotheirstudyofMelos,focusonthislimitationinbiodiversityasa"significantcharacteristicoftheislandecosystem."④Forhumancommunities,however,thislimitationmaypotentiallybeoffsetbyotherfactors.⑤Thereducedbiodiversityofanislandecosystemappliesonlytoterrestrialresources:theresourcesoftheseawillbeasrichasonanyothercoastalarea,andmaybeequallyimportanttohumancommunities.⑥AsmallislandsuchasMaltaorMelosallowsallcommunitiesdirectaccesstothesea,providinganimportantnutritional"safetynet,"aswellasanelementofdietarydiversity,whichmayactuallygiveislandcommunitiesanadvantageovertheirlandlockedcounterparts.⑦Islandsmayalsohavespecificnonbiologicalresources(suchasobsidianonMelos),whichmaybeusedinexchangewithcommunitiesonotherislandsandadjacentmainlands.
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单选题BiologistsstudyingwildmonkeyssometimesneedthegeneticmaterialDNAfromaparticularmonkeytodeterminetheanimal'sparentage.Untilrecently,DNAcouldbeextractedonlyfromblood.Collectingabloodsamplerequiredtranquilizingthedonoranimal.NowDNAcanbeextractedfromhair.Monkeysshedlargequantitiesofhairinplaceswheretheysleep.Therefore,researcherswillnowbeabletodeterminetheparentageofindividualmonkeysfromDNAwithouttranquilizingthemonkeys.Whichofthefollowingisanassumptiononwhichtheargumentdepends?______
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单选题①OneofthereasonswhymanyearlyBritishcoloniesinNorthAmericafailedamidtheNewWorld'sabundancewasthatthesettlers'mindsetpreventedthemfromlivinglikethenativeinhabitants.②FromNativeAmericans,thesettlerslearnedsuchskillsasbuildingbrushwoodweirstotrapfish,buttheydidnotadopttherealkeytosuccess:mobility.③ThewholeintellectualfoundationofEuropeancivilizationwasfixity—aworldviewprofoundlydifferentfromthatofNativeAmericans,whomovedinresponsetochangingfoodresources.④SettlersweredrawntoNorthAmericabytalesofitsextraordinaryabundance,notrealizingthatabundanceisseasonal.⑤CultureandecologicalknowledgeallowedNativeAmericanstoexploitdifferentfoodsourcesatdifferenttimeofyear.
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单选题①RalphEllisonwaspassionatelyinterestedinthevisualarts.②HeimmersedhimselfinHarlem'sartsceneinthe1930s,evenapprenticingwithsculptorRichmondBarthéforatime.③YethewaswaryofprojectsaimingtoprovideavisualrenderingofhisnovelInvisibleMan.④HereluctantlyallowedFranklinLibrarytopublishtwoillustratedversionsofthenovelbutfoundtheresultsdisappointingandrepeatedlyrejectedproposedfilmversionsofthebook.⑤Despitehisinvolvementinvisualarts,EllisoninsistedthatonlylanguagecouldcapturethecomplexityofAmericanidentity.⑥ThiscomplexityconsistedofthetensionarisingfromthecollisionoftheUnitedStates'writtenideals,asoutlinedinthefoundingdocuments,andthehistoricalandcontemporaryexperiencesmoldingthenationalconsciousness.
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单选题 ①In recent decades
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单选题①Untilaround1930fewUnitedStatesCivilWarhistorianspaidmuchattentiontoSouthernerswhoopposedthe1861-1865secessionfromtheUnitedStatesbyaconfederacyofSouthernstates.②SouthernhistoriansclunginsteadtoanotionoftheSouth'sunanimityinthefaceofNorthernaggression.③OnlywhenscholarssuchasLonndecidedtoexaminethissideofthewardidhistorianoftheConfederacybegintorecognizetheexistenceofSouthernersloyaltotheUnion(Unionists).④WhiletheseearlyhistoriansofSoutherndissentbrokenewground,theyalsoreproducedConfederateauthorities'negativeviewofloyalistsasshadycharactersdrivenbydubiousmotives.⑤EvenTatum,whotookalargelysympatheticattitudetowardloyalists,tendedtolumpthemintonebulouscategories,offeringbroadgeneralizationsthatignoredtheparticularsofUnionists'identitiesandexperiences.①Thisearly-twentieth-centuryhistoriographynonethelessrepresentedtheleadingresearchondissentintheSouthuntilthe1960sand1970s.②Spurredbytheadventofsocialhistoricalmethods,anewgenerationofhistoriansfoundUnionistsinterestingasmanifestationsoftheConfederacy'sinternalweaknesses.③FocusingontheAppalachianMountainandupperSouthregionsoftheConfederacy,thesescholarsarguedthattherewasaprofounddivideamongSouthernWhitesbetweenthosewhobenefitedeconomicallyfromslave-runplantationsandthosewhodidnot.④OnesuchhistorianwasEscott,whoemphasizedregionalandeconomicconflictamongSoutherners.⑤EscottcastUnionistsandotherdissentersasmountaineerswhocouldnot,byreasonofeconomicandsocialalienation,identifywiththeproslaverySoutherncause.⑥Thisthemehasheavilyinfluencedtheworkofsubsequentscholars,whocommonlyplaceUnionistsattheextremeendofacontinuumofclass-basedConfederatedisaffectionthatwasultimatelyresponsiblefortheSouth'scollapse.⑦BecausethedrivingforcebehindsuchinquiriesintoloyalisthistoryhasbeenadesiretoexplainConfederateideology,politics,anddefeat,emphasishasbeenplacedonthewaysloyalistSouthernersdivergedfromthepoliticalandeconomicmainstreamofConfederatenationalism.①OnlyrecentlyhavesomeCivilWarhistoriansbeguntomakeUnionistsandtheirexperiences,ratherthantheConfederatestate,thecenterofinquiry.②Thesescholarshavedoneintensivecommunityandlocalstudiesofdissentinggroupsthattakeintoaccountarangeofsocialandcultural,aswellasmilitaryandpolitical,factorsatworkontheSouthernhomefront.③HopingtobetterunderstandwhoremainedloyaltotheUnionduringthewar,thesehistorianshavesoughttoexplaintheCivilWar'sunderlyingcharacter,dimensions,andimpactinparticularcountiesortowns,especiallyintheupperSouthandAppalachia.④Thisrelativelynewtrendhasstressedtheparticular,delvedintothecomplexitiesofpoliticalallegiancesonthehomefront,and,asSutherlandnotes,highlighted"thegrittyexperienceofrealpeople."
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单选题 ①According to von Kárman
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单选题①ManyscholarshavearguedthatgovernmentinvestmentinmanufacturinginthesouthernUnitedStatesduringtheSecondWorldWarspurredaregionaleconomicboomthatlastedintothepostwarperiod.②Butmuchofthisinvestmentwenttospecializedplants,manyofthemunsuitableforpostwarproduction.③Large-scale,wartimegovernmentfundingledtoamassiveincreaseinthenumberandscaleofmunitionsfacilities.④Bythewar'send,216munitionsestablishmentcostingmorethan$3.5billionhadbeenbuilt,manyofthemlocatedinthesouth.⑤Indeed,accordingtooneestimate,morethan70percentoffederallyfinancedmanufacturingconstructioncapitalinAlabama,Arkansas,Mississippi,andTennesseewentintomunitionsplants.①Eveninthenorthernregionswithstrongprewarmanufacturingeconomics,theseplantsweredifficulttodealwithoncetheimperativeofwarhadbeenremoved.②Inthesouthfewindustrialistshadthecapacityordesiretotransformthesefactoriestoapeacetimefunction.③Accordingly,atwar'sendalmostallofthesouthernmunitionsfacilitieswereshutdown,placedonstandby,operatedataverylowcapacity,orconvertedtononmanufacturingfunctions,usuallystorage.④AlthoughsomereopenedafewyearslaterforuseduringtheKoreanWar,theimpactofthespecialplantsontheSouth'spostwareconomywasmarginalatbest.
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单选题 ①African American drama has, until recently
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单选题 ①Based on evidence from tree rings
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单选题Inthe1600stherewasintensecompetitioninEuropetodiscoverhowtomakeporcelain.ThetwogroupsofEuropeansworkinginChina—DutchmerchantsandFrenchmissionaries—eachtriedtodiscovertheChinesemanufacturers'secrets.ThefirstFrenchmissionaryjournal,wasnotpublisheduntil1717,severalyearsafterEuropeanporcelainmanufacturebegan.Therefore,ratherthancopyingtheChinesetechniques,theEuropeanmanufacturersmusthavelearnedbyexperiment.Whichofthefollowing,iftrue,providesthestrongestsupportfortheargument?______
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单选题①Astronomerswhostudyplanetformationoncebelievedthatcomets—becausetheyremainmostlyinthedistantOortcloud,wheretemperaturesareclosetoabsolutezero—mustbepristinerelicsofthematerialthatformedtheouterplanets.②Theconceptualshiftawayfromseeingcometsaspristinerelicsbeganinthe1970s,whenlaboratorysimulationsrevealedtherewassufficientultravioletradiationreachingcometstodarkentheirsurfacesandthereweresufficientcosmicraystoalterchemicalbondsorevenmolecularstructurenearthesurface.③Nevertheless,astronomersstillbelievedthatwhenacometapproachedtheSun—wheretheycouldstudyit—theSun'sintenseheatwouldremovethecorruptedsurfacelayer,exposingtheinterior.④Aboutthesametime,though,scientistsrealizedcometsmightcontaindecayingradioactiveisotopesthatcouldhavewarmedcometaryinteriorstotemperaturesthatcausedtheinteriorstoevolve.
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