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单选题Humanresourceisoneofthekeyfactorsindeterminingorganizationalcopingandprofitability.Despiteadversemarketconditionsandfluctuations,manyorganizationshaveimplementedchangesthatseektoimprovetheircompetitiveness.Theconsequencesoforganizationalchange,however,canvary.Sometimes,theemployeesmayacceptthechangereadily;atothertimes,thechangeismetwithresistanceanddissatisfactionoftheemployees.Changeandstressarecloselyrelated.Becauseofthefeelingsofuncertainty,insecurity,andthreatthatitinvokes,organizationalchangecanbeextremelystressfulfortheindividual.Whenchangeoccurs,employeesmaybestressedbyroleoverload,roleambiguity,androleboundary.AccordingtoSelye,alittlestressisactuallygood.Whenstressisatitsoptimallevel,itcanincreasehumanresourcepotentialasitspursindividualstoachievetheirbestworkingperformances.However,stresscanbecomenegativeanddestructivewhenitsoptimal1evelisexceeded.Thiscouldresultinindividualsexperiencinghighlevelsofanxietyordepression,lowjobmotivation,somaticproblemssuchasheadaches,lossofappetite,troublesleepingandillhealth.Inanorganizationthathasmanyofitsemployeesoverlystressedorburnedout,therearemanydetrimentalconsequencessuchashigherabsenteeism,lowerproductivity,lowerjobsatisfaction,andlowmorale.Thereisvariationinthemannerindividualsrespondtoorganizationalchange.IndividualsmayundergoasimiIarchangeprocessintheorganization,butthestressevokedbythechangecanbeperceivedverydifferently.Someindividualsmayregardchangeasathreat,feelingdistressedandfearfuloftheuncertainconsequencesofthechange.Othersmayreacttothechangewithoutburstsofangerandcomplaints.Yettherearealsothosewhowelcomechangewithanoptimisticattitude,seeingchangeasachallenge,anopportunityforgrowthandimprovement.Whataccountsforthedifferencesinexperiencingchangeandperceivingstressfortheseindividuals?Manystudiessuggestorganizationalcharacteristics,suchasworkplaceclimate,empowerment,andinformationaboutchange,asfactorsthataffectanindividual'sadjustmenttoorganizationalchangeandstress.However,theresearchisoftenfocusedonorganization-levelphenomena,ratherthanonindividualfactors.Everypersonhasadistinctsetofpersonalitycharacteristics,ownsdifferentresources,andemploysdifferentcopingstrategiestodealwithchange.Thisexplainswhycopingwithorganizationalchangeandstresscanturnouttobeverydifferentexperiencesforindividuals.Forinstance,recentmicro-levelresearchonindividualshasidentifieddispositionaltraitsthatpredictaperson'sabilitytocopewithchange.Hence,ontopoflookingatorganizationalfactors,thisstudyalsoexaminesindividualfactorsthatmayhelptomaximizeanindividual'spotentialtoworkproductivelyandefficientlyinthemidstofchange.
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单选题 As a manager in the service industry sector
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单选题Moneyservesprimarilyasamediumofexchange--thefunctionperformedbymoneyinfacilitatingexchangeandeliminatingtheneedforabartersystem.Ratherthanfollowthecomplicatedprocessof1wheatdirectlyforgasolineorclothing(thebartersystem),afarmercansellthewheatandusethe2fromthesaletomakeotherpurchases.Moneyalso3asaunitofaccount-thecommondenominatorformeasuringthe4ofallproductsandservices.Anewcarisworth,say,$9,500,acertaincutofbeef$4,anda40-yard-linetickettoafootball5$20.Usingmoneyasacommondenominatoraidsincomparingwidelydifferentproductsandservices.Finally,moneyactsasatemporary6.ofvalue--awayofkeepingaccumulatedwealthuntilitisneededtomakenew7.Wealthcanalsobeheldintheformofstocksandbonds,realestate,antiques,worksofart,houses,preciousgems,oranyotherkindofvaluablegoods.The8ofstoringvalueingoodsotherthanmoneyisthattheyoftenproduceadditionalincomeintheformofdividends,interestpayments,rent,orincreasesinvalue.Forexample,paintingsbyRenoir,Monet,andVanGoghhavegreatly9invalueoverthepast20years.Butmoneyoffersonesubstantialadvantageasastoreofvalue.Itishighlyliquid.Anassetissaidtobeliquidifitcanbeobtainedand10quicklyandeasily.
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单选题Inrecentyearsmanycountriesoftheworld1withtheproblemofhowtomaketheirworkersmoreproductive.Someexpertsclaimtheansweristomakejobsmore2.Butdomorevariedjobsleadtogreaterproductivity?Thereisevidencetosuggestthatwhilevarietycertainlymakestheworkers'lifemoreenjoyable,itdoesnotactuallymakehimworkharder.Asfarasincreasingproductivityis3,thevarietyisnoanimportantfactor.Otherexpertsfeelthatgivingtheworkerfreedomtodohisjobinhisownwayisimportantandthereisnodoubtthatthisistrue.Theproblemisthatthiskindoffreedomcannoteasilybegiveninthemodernfactorywithitscomplicated4whichmustbeusedinafixedway,Thuswhilefreedomofchoicemaybeimportant,thereisusuallyverylittlethat5tocreateit.Anotherimportant6ishowmucheachworkercontributestotheproductbeismaking.Inmostfactoriestheworkerseesonlyonesmallpartoftheproduct.Somecarfactoriesarenowexperimentingwithhavingmanysmallproductionlinesratherthanonelargeone,sothateachworkercontributesmoretotheproductionofthecarsonhislineItwouldseamthatnotonlyisthe7ofworkers'contributionanimportantfactor,8,butitisalsoonewecandosomethingabout.Towhatextentdoesmoremoneyleadtogreaterproductivity?Theworkersthemselvescertainlythinkthisisimportant.Butperhapstheywantmoremoneyonlybecausetheworktheydoissoboring.Moneyjustletsthemenjoytheirsparetimemore.Asimilarargumentmayexplain9forshorterworkinghours.Perhapsifwesucceedinmakingtheirjobsmoreinteresting,theywillneitherwantmoremoney,norwillshorter10hoursbesoimportanttothem.
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单选题FindingandkeepingcustomersCustomersandbuyersarethelifebloodofanybusiness.Theconstantchallengeistofirstfindyourcustomersandthenselltothem.Forbusinesseswhicharejuststartingup,marketingprofessionalssuggestworkingoutaSWOTanalysis-asystematicreviewofyourStrengths,Weaknesses,OpportunitiesandThreats-toclarifyyourbusinessthinkingand1realisticsalestargets.Onceyou'vegainedcustomersit'simportanttorememberthattheycan2orbreakyourbusiness.Afterall,ifyougiveexcellentservice,theywillfreelyadvertiseyourcompanytocolleaguesandfriends,givingyouacompetitive3overyourrivals.Whenyou'replanningtopayforadvertising,businessdirectories,localnewspapersandtheinternetcanbeverycost-effective.Tradeexhibitionscanalso4youtoawiderangeofusefulcontactsandlucrativenewmarkets.Youmayalsobeableto5companynewsintofreePRbysendingpress6tomagazinesandnewspapers.Buteditorshavevery7space,soyourstorymustbeunusuallyinterestingandentertainingto8inprint.AtJSBankwespecialiseinhelpingnewbusinesses9offtoapromisingstart.Wecanhelpyoudevelopyourbusiness,andourfreebookHowto10yourbusinesspotentialisadetailed,practicalguidetoadvertising,endorsedbytheInstituteofDirectMarketing.ContactyourlocalJSBankforacopy.
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单选题Ithasbeensaidthatmanagementisascienceandthatleadershipisanart.Managementiscomprisedofconcrete,measurableskills:planning,organizing,directing,andcontrolling.Thumbthroughanymanagementtextbookandyou'llseespecificmodels,formulas,procedures,ortechniquesformonitoringandcontrollingperformanceoutput.Controllingproductivitythroughadherencetostandardsisthestock-in-tradeoftheeffectivemanager.It'snotalwaysaneasytask,andtalentedmanagersshouldbegiventhecredittheydeserveinhelpingtheirorganizationssucceed.Noorganizationcansurviveforverylong,letaloneearnanysortofsubstantialprofits,withoutsoundmanagement.Butmanagementaloneisnotenoughintoday'smarketplace.Itistherightbalance,acombinationofefficientmanagementandleadershipthateveryorganizationisseeking.Justwhatisthenewmodelofleadershipforthe21stcentury?Itrevolvesaroundfiveabstractqualities.Managersmaypossesssomeoralloftheseabilitiestoonedegreeoranother,buttheseskillsaredistinctfromtheparticularqualitiesthatdefinemanagement.Tobetterunderstandhowleadershipandmanagementdiffer,leftsreviewthefiveleadershipcompetencies.Self-masteryisthefoundationuponwhichaleader'scredibilityisbuiltandfromwhichaleader'simagewillevolve.Self-masteryinvolvesawareness,acknowledgment,andacceptance.It'saboutdiscoveringthequalitiesthatmakeyouspecialandunique.It'saboutyourowntalentsandabilities-yourpersonalareasofexcellence.Effectiveleaderscreateopportunitiestoshowcasetheirnaturalabilities.Theyuncovertheirpotentialtalentsbycontinuallyst.retchingthemselvesandpushingthemselvestotheirlimits.Atthesametime,however,thesuccessfulleaderacknowledgeshisorherlimitations.Toachievetrueself-masteryyoumustacceptyourself,includingyourfaults,totallyandunconditionally.Visionisinmanywaystheheartandsoulofleadership.Whilethemanagermustdealwithissuesandproduceresultsonaday-to-daybasis,aleadermustfocusonboththepresentandthefuture.Themanager'sconcernistoday;theleaderhasavisionfortomorrow.Butsimplyhavingavisionisnotenough;youmustmakeothersbelieveinit,too.Putyourplansforthefuturebeforetheeyesandearsofthepeoplearoundyou.Whenotherpeoplebegintobuyintoyourvisionandmakeittheirown,goodthingsstarttohappen—andhappenquickly.Leadersturntheirvisionintorealitybyconstantlylettingothersknowwhat'sinitforthem."Personalpower"istheabilitytoinfluenceandpersuadeothers.Itisnottobeconfusedwith"positionpower".Positionpowerisembeddedinhierarchical,organizationalstructure.Personalpowerisearned.Youdonotnecessarilyneedtohavedirectauthorityoverotherstodisplaypersonalpower.Infact,inthemostsuccessfulcompanies,leadershipexistsatalllevels.Developpersonalpowerbybeingdependable,followingthroughoncommitments,anddemonstratingconcernforthewelfareofothers.PeoplewillrecognizeyourpersonalFewerandlooktoyoufordirection.Empowermentcompletesthesetofleadershipskills.Althoughithasbecomeabuzzwordinthe90's,leadershavebeenawareoftheconceptofempowermentthroughouttheages.Empewermentistheprocessbywhichaleaderenablesotherindividualstosuccessfullycompleteacertainjobortask.Itisatechniquethatallowsyoutodelegateresponsibilityfortasksthroughoutyourorganization,evenatthelowestlevels.Asaleader,itisinyourinteresttonurtureanddevelopindividualswhowillonedaytakeyourplace,somakeempowermentatoppriority.Empowermontinvolvesthreecriticalingredients:skills,confidence,andauthority.Evaluateyourfollowers'skillsandprovidetrainingtoimproveorenhancetheirabilities.Instillconfidenceinothersandraisetheirself-esteembymaintainingface-to-facecontactandofferingpraiseforajobwelldone.Furthermore,bestowauthorityontootherpeople,givingthemtherighttoexercisetheirbestpersonaljudgment.Trueleadersarealwayswillingtogivecredittoothersandacceptresponsibilityforfailure,whilesimultaneouslysupporting,encouraging,andempoweringtheirfollowers.Ifyoudoso,youwilldevelopanunshakabletrustbondwithothersinyourorganization,establishingyourowncredibilitywhileensuringresults.Noonecandenytheimportanceofgoodmanagementinasuccessfulorganization.Butgoodmanagementaloneisnolongerenough.Recognizingthedifferencebetweenmanagementandleadership,andstrikingthecorrectbalancebetweenthetwo,willprovidesubstantialdividendsinthelongrun.Managementwillgetyouthroughtoday;leadershipwillensureabettertomorrow.
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单选题LanguagelearningforthebusyexecutiveIfyou'veeverbeentoldbyyourbosstoimproveyourknowledgeofaforeignlanguageyou'llknowthatsuccessdoesn'tcomequickly.Itgenerallytakesyearstolearnanotherlanguagewellandconstant1tomaintainthehighstandardsrequiredforfrequentbusinessuse.Whetheryoustudyinaclass,withaudiocassettes,computersoronyour2sooneror3everylanguagecoursefinishesandyoumustdecidewhattodonextifyouneedaforeignlanguageforyourcareer.BusinessAudioMagazinesisanewproductdesignedtohelpyoucontinuelanguagestudyinawaythatfitseasilyintoyourbusyschedule.Eachaudiocassette4ofanhour-longprogrammepackedwithbusinessnews,featuresandinterviewsinthelanguageofyourchoice.Thesecassetteswon'tteachyouhowtoordermealsoraskfordirections.Itis5thatyoucandothatalready.Instead,bygivingyouanopportunitytohearthelanguageasit'sreallyspoken,theyhelpyouto6yourvocabularyandimproveyourabilitytousereallanguagerelatingto,forexample,thatall-importantmarketingtrip.Thegreatadvantageofusingaudiomagazinesisthatthey7youtoperfectyourlanguageskillsinwaysthatsuityourlifestyle.Forexample,youcanselectatopicandlisteninyourcarorhotelwhenawayonbusiness.Nootherbusinesscourseisas8andtheuniqueradio-magazineformatisasinstructiveasitisentertaining.Inadditiontotheaudiocassette,thispackageincludesatranscriptwithabusinessglossaryandastudy9Thecomponentsarestructuredsothatintermediateandadvancedstudentsmayusethemseparatelyortogether,10ontheirability.
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单选题 First it revolutionised everything
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填空题Manufacturer's newservicefocus The huge Eastman c
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填空题 A Globalisation is an umbrella term for a compl
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填空题Matcheachofthedescriptionsintheboxtooneofthegraphsbelow.fluctuatedwildlyincreasedsteadilydivergedsignificantlydevelopedinasimilarwayreachedapeakremainedrelativelystablerecoveredslightlycontinuedonanupwardtrendwithsomefluctuationsrecordedasharprise
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填空题ManagementDevelopmentProgramme0WeareproudtopresentthisManagementDevelopmentProgrammeasafive-day00opportunitytoimproveyourpersonalandtheinterpersonalmanagementskills.1Managing-thehumansideofmanyenterprise-todaycallsfortop-leveltalentsin2self-managementandthemanagementofothersandthistypecourseofferstheinside3tracktogainingskillswhichneededtoachieveoutstandingeffectiveness.Itisdesigned4forexecutivesatalllevels,tostrengthencoreskillsintheareasofmanagement5andcommunicationskills.Bytheendofthecourse,individualswillhavebeentakena6majorstepforwardintheirabilitytoachievetrulyexcellentlevelsofperformance7fromthemselvesandothers.Tomaintainahighlevelofstimulationthroughoutcourse,8avarietyoflearningmethodswillbeemployed.Theseincludeformallectures,9teamexercisesandcasestudies.Allwillbecarefullymanagedtoensureyouthat10learningisdevelopedthroughrelatingtoeachoneindividual'sownworkexperiences.11Inordertoensurethateachparticipantderivesthemaximumofbenefitfrom12thecourse,numbersarelimitedto15.Sodon'tdelay-bookyourplacenow!Formoreinformation,pleasecontactthenumberoverleaf.
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填空题How to Handle Customers' Complaints
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填空题Complete the dialogue between a bank manager and a
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填空题A
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填空题Successful collaboration When colleagues act in w
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填空题Technical writers Twenty years ago
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填空题Do you want your salary up? From If you are curre
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填空题Offshoring A
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填空题Younger people are more likely to talk about their
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