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单选题 Human resource is one of the key factors in determining organizational coping and profitability.Despite adverse market conditions and fluctuations,many organizations have implemented changes that seek to improve their competitiveness.The consequences of organizational change,however,can vary.Sometimes,the employees may accept the change readily;at other times,the change is met with resistance and dissatisfaction of the employees. Change and stress are closely related.Because of the feelings of uncertainty, insecurity,and threat that it invokes,organizational change can be extremely stressful for the individual.When change occurs,employees may be stressed by role overload,role ambiguity,and role boundary. According to Selye,a little stress is actually good.When stress is at its optimal level,it can increase human resource potential as it spurs individuals to achieve their best working performances. However,stress can become negative and destructive when its optimal 1evel is exceeded.This could result in individuals experiencing high levels of anxiety or depression,low job motivation,somatic problems such as headaches,loss of appetite, trouble sleeping and ill health.In an organization that has many of its employees overly stressed or burned out,there are many detrimental consequences such as higher absenteeism,lower productivity,lower job satisfaction,and low morale. There is variation in the manner individuals respond to organizational change. Individuals may undergo a simiIar change process in the organization,but the stress evoked by the change can be perceived very differently.Some individuals may regard change as a threat,feeling distressed and fearful of the uncertain consequences of the change.Others may react to the change with outbursts of anger and complaints.Yet there are also those who welcome change with an optimistic attitude,seeing change as a challenge,an opportunity for growth and improvement. What accounts for the differences in experiencing change and perceiving stress forthese individuals? Many studies suggest organizational characteristics,such as workplaceclimate,empowerment,and information about change,as factors that affect an individual's adjustment to organizational change and stress.However,the research is often focused on organization-level phenomena,rather than on individual factors. Every person has a distinct set of personality characteristics,owns different resources,and employs different coping strategies to deal with change.This explains why coping with organizational change and stress can turn out to be very different experiences for individuals.For instance,recent micro-level research on individuals has identified dispositional traits that predict a person's ability to cope with change.Hence,on top of looking at organizational factors,this study also examines individual factors that may help to maximize an individual's potential to work productively and efficiently in the midst of change.1. According to the second paragraph,what is the most possible and proper statement about the reason why change and stress are closely related?
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单选题 As a manager in the service industry sector
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单选题 Money serves primarily as a medium of exchange --the function performed by money in facilitating exchange and eliminating the need for a barter system. Rather than follow the complicated process of 1 wheat directly for gasoline or clothing (the barter system), a farmer can sell the wheat and use the 2 from the sale to make other purchases. Money also 3 as a unit of account-the common denominator for measuring the 4 of all products and services. A new car is worth, say, $9,500, a certain cut of beef $4, and a 40-yard-line ticket to a football 5 $ 20. Using money as a common denominator aids in comparing widely different products and services. Finally, money acts as a temporary 6 . of value--a way of keeping accumulated wealth until it is needed to make new 7 . Wealth can also be held in the form of stocks and bonds, real estate, antiques, works of art, houses, precious gems, or any other kind of valuable goods. The 8 of storing value in goods other than money is that they often produce additional income in the form of dividends, interest payments, rent, or increases in value. For example, paintings by Renoir, Monet, and Van Gogh have greatly 9 in value over the past 20 years. But money offers one substantial advantage as a store of value. It is highly liquid. An asset is said to be liquid if it can be obtained and 10 quickly and easily.1.
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单选题 In recent years many countries of the world 1 with the problem of how to make their workers more productive. Some experts claim the answer is to make jobs more 2 . But do more varied jobs lead to greater productivity? There is evidence to suggest that while variety certainly makes the workers' life more enjoyable, it does not actually make him work harder. As far as increasing productivity is 3 , the variety is no an important factor.Other experts feel that giving the worker freedom to do his job in his own way is important and there is no doubt that this is true. The problem is that this kind of freedom cannot easily be given in the modern factory with its complicated 4 which must be used in a fixed way, Thus while freedom of choice may be important, there is usually very little that 5 to create it. Another important 6 is how much each worker contributes to the product be is making. In most factories the worker sees only one small part of the product. Some car factories are now experimenting with having many small production lines rather than one large one, so that each worker contributes more to the production of the cars on his line It would seam that not only is the 7 of workers' contribution an important factor, 8 , but it is also one we can do something about.To what extent does more money lead to greater productivity? The workers themselves certainly think this is important. But perhaps they want more money only because the work they do is so boring. Money just lets them enjoy their spare time more. A similar argument may explain 9 for shorter working hours. Perhaps if we succeed in making their jobs more interesting, they will neither want more money, nor will shorter 10 hours be so important to them.1.
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单选题 Finding and keeping customers Customers and buyers are the lifeblood of any business. The constant challenge is to first find your customers and then sell to them. For businesses which are just starting up, marketing professionals suggest working out a SWOT analysis-a systematic review of your Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats-to clarify your business thinking and 1 realistic sales targets. Once you've gained customers it's important to remember that they can 2 or break your business. After all, if you give excellent service, they will freely advertise your company to colleagues and friends, giving you a competitive 3 over your rivals. When you're planning to pay for advertising, business directories, local newspapers and the internet can be very cost-effective. Trade exhibitions can also 4 you to a wide range of useful contacts and lucrative new markets. You may also be able to 5 company news into free PR by sending press 6 to magazines and newspapers. But editors have very 7 space, so your story must be unusually interesting and entertaining to 8 in print. At JS Bank we specialise in helping new businesses 9 off to a promising start. We can help you develop your business, and our free book How to 10 your business potential is a detailed, practical guide to advertising, endorsed by the Institute of Direct Marketing. Contact your local JS Bank for a copy.1.
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单选题 It has been said that management is a science and that leadership is an art. Management is comprised of concrete, measurable skills: planning, organizing, directing, and controlling. Thumb through any management textbook and you'll see specific models, formulas, procedures, or techniques for monitoring and controlling performance output. Controlling productivity through adherence to standards is the stock-in-trade of the effective manager. It's not always an easy task, and talented managers should be given the credit they deserve in helping their organizations succeed. No organization can survive for very long, let alone earn any sort of substantial profits, without sound management. But management alone is not enough in today's marketplace. It is the right balance, a combination of efficient management and leadership that every organization is seeking. Just what is the new model of leadership for the 21st century? It revolves around five abstract qualities. Managers may possess some or all of these abilities to one degree or another, but these skills are distinct from the particular qualities that define management. To better understand how leadership and management differ, lefts review the five leadership competencies. Self-mastery is the foundation upon which a leader's credibility is built and from which a leader's image will evolve. Self-mastery involves awareness, acknowledgment, and acceptance. It's about discovering the qualities that make you special and unique. It's about your own talents and abilities-your personal areas of excellence. Effective leaders create opportunities to showcase their natural abilities. They uncover their potential talents by continually st. retching themselves and pushing themselves to their limits. At the same time, however, the successful leader acknowledges his or her limitations. To achieve true self-mastery you must accept yourself, including your faults, totally and unconditionally. Vision is in many ways the heart and soul of leadership. While the manager must deal with issues and produce results on a day-to-day basis, a leader must focus on both the present and the future. The manager's concern is today; the leader has a vision for tomorrow. But simply having a vision is not enough; you must make others believe in it, too. Put your plans for the future before the eyes and ears of the people around you. When other people begin to buy into your vision and make it their own, good things start to happen—and happen quickly. Leaders turn their vision into reality by constantly letting others know what's in it for them. "Personal power" is the ability to influence and persuade others. It is not to be confused with "position power". Position power is embedded in hierarchical, organizational structure. Personal power is earned. You do not necessarily need to have direct authority over others to display personal power. In fact, in the most successful companies, leadership exists at all levels. Develop personal power by being dependable, following through on commitments, and demonstrating concern for the welfare of others. People will recognize your personal Fewer and look to you for direction. Empowerment completes the set of leadership skills. Although it has become a buzz word in the 90's, leaders have been aware of the concept of empowerment throughout the ages. Empewerment is the process by which a leader enables other individuals to successfully complete a certain job or task. It is a technique that allows you to delegate responsibility for tasks throughout your organization, even at the lowest levels. As a leader, it is in your interest to nurture and develop individuals who will one day take your place, so make empowerment a top priority. Empowermont involves three critical ingredients: skills, confidence, and authority. Evaluate your followers' skills and provide training to improve or enhance their abilities. Instill confidence in others and raise their self-esteem by maintaining face-to-face contact and offering praise for a job well done. Furthermore, bestow authority onto other people, giving them the right to exercise their best personal judgment. True leaders are always willing to give credit to others and accept responsibility for failure, while simultaneously supporting, encouraging, and empowering their followers. If you do so, you will develop an unshakable trust bond with others in your organization, establishing your own credibility while ensuring results. No one can deny the importance of good management in a successful organization. But good management alone is no longer enough. Recognizing the difference between management and leadership, and striking the correct balance between the two, will provide substantial dividends in the long run. Management will get you through today; leadership will ensure a better tomorrow.1. The passage is mainly about ______.
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单选题 Language learning for the busy executive If you've ever been told by your boss to improve your knowledge of a foreign language you'll know that success doesn't come quickly. It generally takes years to learn another language well and constant 1 to maintain the high standards required for frequent business use. Whether you study in a class, with audiocassettes, computers or on your 2 sooner or 3 every language course finishes and you must decide what to do next if you need a foreign language for your career. Business Audio Magazines is a new product designed to help you continue language study in a way that fits easily into your busy schedule. Each audiocassette 4 of an hour-long programme packed with business news, features and interviews in the language of your choice. These cassettes won't teach you how to order meals or ask for directions. It is 5 that you can do that already. Instead, by giving you an opportunity to hear the language as it's really spoken, they help you to 6 your vocabulary and improve your ability to use real language relating to, for example, that all-important marketing trip. The great advantage of using audio magazines is that they 7 you to perfect your language skills in ways that suit your lifestyle. For example, you can select a topic and listen in your car or hotel when away on business. No other business course is as 8 and the unique radio-magazine format is as instructive as it is entertaining. In addition to the audiocassette, this package includes a transcript with a business glossary and a study 9 The components are structured so that intermediate and advanced students may use them separately or together, 10 on their ability.1.
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单选题 First it revolutionised everything
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填空题Manufacturer's newservicefocus The huge Eastman c
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填空题 A Globalisation is an umbrella term for a compl
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填空题Match each of the descriptions in the box to one of the graphs below. fluctuated wildly increased steadily diverged significantly developed in a similar way reached a peak remained relatively stable recovered slightly continued on an upward trend with some fluctuations recorded a sharp rise
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填空题 Management Development Programme 0 We are proud to present this Management Development Programme as a five-day 00 opportunity to improve your personal and the interpersonal management skills. 1 Managing-the human side of many enterprise-today calls for top-level talents in 2 self-management and the management of others and this type course offers the inside 3 track to gaining skills which needed to achieve outstanding effectiveness. It is designed 4 for executives at all levels, to strengthen core skills in the areas of management 5 and communication skills. By the end of the course, individuals will have been taken a 6 major step forward in their ability to achieve truly excellent levels of performance 7 from themselves and others. To maintain a high level of stimulation throughout course, 8 a variety of learning methods will be employed. These include formal lectures, 9 team exercises and case studies. All will be carefully managed to ensure you that 10 learning is developed through relating to each one individual's own work experiences. 11 In order to ensure that each participant derives the maximum of benefit from 12 the course, numbers are limited to 15. So don't delay-book your place now! For more information, please contact the number overleaf.
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填空题How to Handle Customers' Complaints
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填空题Complete the dialogue between a bank manager and a
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填空题A
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填空题Successful collaboration When colleagues act in w
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填空题Technical writers Twenty years ago
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填空题Do you want your salary up? From If you are curre
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填空题Offshoring A
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填空题Younger people are more likely to talk about their
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