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单选题
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单选题.Questions11to15arebasedonthefollowinginterview.
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单选题.
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单选题Questions 6 to 10 are based on the following news
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单选题 Last year
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单选题Questions11to15arebasedonthefollowinginterview.
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单选题.Questions1to5arebasedonthefollowingconversation.
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单选题.Googlehasimaginedafuturewhereitusesenormousquantitiesofdataitcollectsonindividualstomanipulatetheirbehaviourandachieve"desiredresults"forthewholespecies.Inaleakedvideofromthecompany'ssecretiveXresearchdivision,thenarratorcitesRichardDawkin'sbookTheSelfishGeneanddepictsGoogle'sdataasa"selfishledger"whichtreatsusersas"transientcarriers"or"survivalmechanisms"forvaluabledata.Hesaysthattheledgercouldmovebeyondapassiverecordtoactivelyinfluencepeople'sactions,inlinewithGoogle's"values".IfGoogledidn'thaveenoughdataonaparticularuseritsalgorithmswouldidentifyasuitable"smart"producttosellhimorhertogatherthatdata.Googledismissedthevideoasa"thoughtexperiment"unrelatedtoanypresentorfutureplans.However,analystssaidthatthedystopianfutureitpaintedwasplausible.Similarideascanbefoundinsomeofthefirm'spatentapplications,includingonefor"detectingandcorrectingpotentialerrorsinuserbehaviour".TheleakcomesataparticularlyembarrassingtimeforGoogleastechnologygiantscomeunderpressurefrompoliticiansovertheirharvestingofusers'data.OneTimesdigitaleditorrecentlydiscoveredthatGoogleheldalmostaterabyteofdataonhim,theequivalentof1,024GBortensofmillionsofwordfiles,includinghissearchandbrowsinghistory,hismovements,andhisphotosandemails.Intheeight-minuteclipfrom2016thenarratorsays:"User-centreddesignprincipleshavedominatedtheworldofcomputingformanydecadesbutwhatifwelookedatthingsalittledifferently?Whatiftheledgercouldbegivenavolitionorpurposeratherthansimplyactingasahistoricalreference?"Hesaysthat,tobeginwith,userswouldretaincontroloverthegoalssetbytheledger,with"Google...responsibleforofferingsuitabletargets".Headded:"Whilstthenotionofaglobalgoodisproblematic,topicswouldlikelyfocusonhealthorenvironmentalimpacttoreflectGoogle'svaluesasanorganisation."Thefootageexplainshow,initially,peoplecouldchangetheirphonesettingstoaskGoogleforhelpto"eatmorehealthily","protecttheenvironment"or"supportlocalbusinesses",forexample.Afterchoosingtoprotecttheenvironment,GooglewouldusepopupnotificationstonudgeausertotakeasharedUber,ratherthanasingle-occupancyone,ortobuylocallygrownratherthanimportedfruit.Nevertheless,asthenotionofa"goal-drivenledger"becomesmore"palatable",thenarratorsaysthatbehaviour-alteringplanscouldbeputintoactionwithouttheuser'sinstigation.Togainmoredata"whichitrequirestobetterunderstandtheuser",theledgermightattempttosellaparticularconnecteddevicethatwouldgiveGoogletherequiredinsights.Ifnoexistingproductfits,thenarratorsaysthatGoogle'salgorithmmayinvestigatea"bespokesolution",usinghistoricaldataontheuser'stastesand"aestheticsensibility"tocreateanewdevicethat'slikelytoappealandwouldgatherthesought-afterdata.Thenarratorsaysthatbygatheringincreasinglycomprehensivedataovermultiplegenerations,assensorsbecomeubiquitousintheworldaroundus,Googlewouldgainpowerstomake"increasinglyaccuratepredictionsaboutdecisionsandfuturebehaviours"—andultimatelytoinfluencethem.Hesaysthat,inthesamewaythatgeneticistscanusetheirknowledgeofindividualgenestomodifythem,Googlecoulduseitsknowledgeofindividuals'behaviourtoinfluenceit.Hesays:"Aspatternsemergeinthebehaviouralsequences,theytoomaybetargeted.Theledgercouldbegivenafocus,shiftingitfromasystemwhichnotonlytracksourbehaviourbutoffersdirectiontowardsadesiredresult."PaulArmstrong,ofHere/Forth,thetechnologyconsultant,said:"Bigdataofferssocietyahugeopportunitytoalterhumanitybutthemotivesbehindwhowieldspowershouldbequestioned.Technologycanbeusedforgoodorbad;it'swhowieldsitthatistheissueandincreasinglyGoogleandcompanieslikeitcanseemmoreover-reachingratherthanbeneficial."AspokesmanforXtoldTheVergenewswebsite:"Weunderstandifthisisdisturbing—itisdesignedtobe.Thisisathought-experiment...It'snotrelatedtoanycurrentorfutureproducts."Googlehasremovedalmostallmentionsofits"don'tbeevil"mottofromitscodeofconductafterthousandsofGoogleemployeesclaimedthatthecompany'sco-operationwiththeUSmilitaryondronetechnologywasnotinkeepingwiththeslogan.Itwaspreviouslycitedrepeatedlyfromthestartofthedocument,butisnowincludedonlyonceinafinalaside.
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单选题 On 27 January I was due at the Albert Hall
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单选题.Americanworkerswithoutcollegedegreeshavesufferedfinanciallyfordecades.Morerecentisthediscoverythattheirwoesmightbedeadly,in2015AnneCaseandAngusDeatonreportedthatinthe20yearsto1998,themortalityrateofmiddle-agedwhiteAmericansfellbyabout2%ayear.Butbetween1999and2013,deathsrose.Thereversalwasallthemorestrikingbecause,inEurope,overallmiddle-agemortalityfellatthesame2%pace.By2013middle-agedwhiteAmericansweredyingattwicetherateofsimilarlyagedSwedes.Suicide,drugoverdosesandalcoholabuseweretoblame.MsCaseandMrDeatonhavenowupdatedtheirworkontheissue.Theresultsarenohappier.Whitemiddle-agemortalitycontinuedtorisein2014and2015.Thetrendtranscendsgeography.Itisfoundinalmosteverystate,andinbothcitiesandruralareas.Theproblemseemstobegettingworseovertime.Deathsfromdrugs,suicideandalcoholhaverisenineveryfive-yearcohortofwhitesbornsincethe1940s.Youmightthinkthatrisingmortalityistheflipsideoffallingincomes.Recenttrendsinmedianper-personincomeforhouseholdsheadedbywhite50-to54-year-oldsmirrortheirmortalityrate.Incomerisesinthe1990sandthenfallsinthe2000s.Butsplitpeopleoutbyeducation,andthereflectionfades.Theincomeofcollegegraduateshasfollowedasimilarpattern.Buttheirmortalityhassteadilyfallen.AnddeathsofdespairaremuchrareramongblacksandHispanics,whoseincomeshavebeenonsimilarpaths.Theauthorssuspectmoreamorphousforcesareatwork.Thefundamentalcauseisstillafamiliartaleofeconomicmalaise:tradeandtechnologicalprogresshavesnuffedoutopportunitiesforthelow-skilled.Butsocialchangesarealsoinplay.Aseconomiclifehasbecomelesssecure,low-skilledwhitemenhavetendedtowardsunstablecohabitingrelationships.Theyhaveabandonedtraditionalcommunalreligioninfavourofchurchesthatemphasisepersonalidentity.Andtheyhavebecomemorelikelytostopworkingentirely.Thebreakdownoffamily,communityandclearstructuresoflife,hasliberatedmanybutleftotherswhofailblamingthemselvesandfeelinghelplessanddesperate.Whyarewhitestheworstaffected?Theauthorsspeculatethattheirmiseryflowsfromtheircrushedaspirations.BlacksandHispanicsfaceworseeconomiccircumstances,butmayhavehadlowerexpectations.Ortheymayhavetakenhopefromprogressagainstdiscrimination.Low-skilledwhites,bycontrast,mayfindmanyaspectsoftheirlivesperenniallydisappointing.ThatmayPushthemtowardsdepression,drugsandalcohol.ThetheorydoesnotexplainwhymisfortuneissolethalinAmerica.Itishardlytheonlyplacewheremanufacturingjobshavedisappearedandthesocialfabrichasfrayed.InotherEnglish-speakingcountriesdeathsofdespairhaverisen,butnotbyasmuch.ButitisnothardtoseewaysinwhichAmericansareparticularlyvulnerable.Oneexampleistheeasyavailabilityofopioidpainkillers.Deathsfromopioidsmorethandoubledbetween2002and2015.TheepidemicisprimarilyfoundinNorthAmerica.Anotherisaccesstoguns,whichareusedinaroundhalfofsuicides.However,althoughboththesefactorsprobablyincreasedeaths,theycannotfullyexplainthem.Alcohol,whichkillsmanyofthosewhodespair,isreadilyavailableacrosstheWest.AmorelikelyrootcausefordespairistheabsenceofasafetynetforswathesofAmericans.BeforeObamacarefinancedanexpansionofMedicaid,fewstatesprovideanycoverageatallforadultswithoutdependentchildren.Alackofhealthinsurancehasobviousimplicationsformortalitywhenillnessstrikes.Butitcausesthehealthyanguish,too.ArandomisedtrialinOregonfoundthatMedicaidreducesdepressionratesbyathird.Inotherrichcountries,peopleindirestraitsneednotworryaboutpayingforhealthcare.Broadersocialinsuranceisalsolacking.Thehelpavailableforworkerswholosetheirjobsispaltrycomparedwiththeirlifetimeincomelosses.AsapercentageofGDP,Americaspendsonlyone-fifthoftheaverageintheOECD,aclubofmostlyrichcountries,ontrainingworkers:Itspendsonlyaquarteroftheaverageonfinancialhelpforthejobless.YetAmericansdonotseemtobuildtheirownsafetynets;46%saytheycouldnotcoveranunexpected$400expenseandwouldhavetosellsomethingorborrowtopayforit.Aperilouseconomicexistenceandaculturewhichalmostindiscriminatelyholdspeopleresponsiblefortheircircumstancesaretoxicformentalwell-being.Lifeisunlikelytobecomemoresecureforthelow-skilled.Infact,policymaysoonmakeitmoreperilous.Thehealth-carebillthatlawmakerswereduetovoteonasTheEconomistwenttopresswouldvastlyincreasecostsfortheolder,poorerpeoplewhoaresufferingthemost.Oneavenueforreducingdespairmaylieinfuturegenerationsoflow-skilledAmericanscurbingtheiraspirations.Indeed,someofthejoblessyoungalreadyseemcontenttospendmuchoftheirleisuretimeplayingvideogames.ButAmericacansurelydobetterthantohopeforlesshope.
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单选题.Questions6to10arebasedonthefollowingnews.
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单选题.Wearelivinginaworlddefinedbydigitaltransformation.Theongoingevolutionofanalyticsandbusinessintelligence,theexplosioninbigdataandworld-changinginnovationsacrossartificialintelligence,machine-learninganddeep-learningareallconvergingtoprovidebusinesseswithunparalleledinsightandanewunderstandingoftheircustomers,competitors,challengesandfuturepotential.Itisthisenhancedunderstandingofthefuturebusinesslandscape,thepowerofpredictiveanalytics,whichisdrivingrealchangeacrosstheenergyindustry.Twentyyearsago,ifaplantshutdown,maintenancewasa"necessaryevil"withthebottomlinetakingahitfromtheresultingdaysofunforeseendowntime.Executivesofenergyfirmsweremakingdecisionswithoutthepowertopredict.Likeaseismologisttrackingthenextbigearthquake,therewasnosurewayofknowingwhenthenextshutdownwouldhappen,causingprofitstoplunge.Itwasahugeandseeminglyintractableproblemforindustrytoaddress.Nothinghurtsacapital-intensivebusinesslikeunplanneddowntime.Asanexample,onelargemid-streamoilandgascompanywasrecentlyreportedtobelosingcloseto$1millionforeachfailureofanoilwellpump.Companieshavespentmillionsinthepasttryingtoaddresstheunplanneddowntimeissue,butuntilnowtheyhaveonlybeenabletoaddresswearandage-basedfailuresbecausetheylackedinsightintotheprocess-inducedfailuresthatareestimatedtocausemorethan80%ofunplanneddowntime.Today,however,throughadvancesinmachine-learningandthescienceofmaintenance,energyfirmsareempoweredwithtechnologyandreal-timeoperationaldatathatcandetectbreakdownsbeforetheyoccur.Withastableplantandactiveassets,businessleadersCanplan,increaseperformanceoftheirbusinessandraiseprofitability,safeintheknowledgethatplantmaintenanceisseenasawayofdeliveringvaluetotheorganisation,andnotasacostcentreandburden.It'sacompletetransformation,buthowexactlyhasitcomeabout?Digitalisationisfarfromnewtotheenergyindustry,afterall.Asset-intensiveindustrieshavebeencapturingreamsofdata,muchofitfrominternet-enabledsensors,butalsofromdatahistoriansandotherinformationsources,sincethelate-1970s.Thatprocesshasacceleratedsignificantlyinrecentyears.Energyandothercompaniesincapital-intensiveindustriesnowhaveaccesstogrowingvolumesofreal-timedata,assensorsbecomemorepervasiveandlessexpensive,andasadvancedanalyticsarefedthroughincreasedconnectivity.Butthishigh-speedaccesstomoreandmoredataisnotbyitselfgivingdecision-makersthetimeortheinsightstheyneedtobreakthroughoperationalexcellencebarriers.Thetippingpointcomeswiththepracticalandreliableapplicationofmachine-learning.Assetperformancemanagement(APM)hasalwaysbeenkeyinthisindustryinkeepingassetsupandrunning,butithadpreviouslyreliedonstatisticalprojectionsandrule-of-thumbestimatestodefinelikelyfutureperformance.APMisevolvingfast,drivenbythecatalystoflow-touchmachine-learning.Thisrepresentsabreakthroughinautomatingdatacollection,cleansingandanalysistoprovideprescriptivemaintenance,protectionforequipment.Theintegrationofthetwomarksatransitionfromestimatedengineeringandstatisticalmodelstowardsmeasuringpatternsofassetbehaviour.Deployedcoherently,withappropriateautomation,low-touchmachine-learningenablesgreateragilityandflexibilitytoincorporatecurrent,historicalandprojectedconditionsfromprocesssensors,andmechanicalandprocessevents.Systemsbecomemoreagileandareabletoadapttorealdataconditions—andincorporatethenuancesofassetbehaviour.Nowpreviousmaintenancepracticescanbeimprovedtorecogniseissuesaffectingassetdegradation.Operationalintegrityimproveswhenorganisationsimplementstrategiestodetectrootcausesearlyandavoidunplanneddowntime.ThelatestbreedofAPMsolutionsisreadytoimprovereliability,liftnetproductoutputandincreaseprofitability,markingitclearthatthepowertopredictisdrivingpositivechangeacrosstheenergysector.
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单选题.Childrendon'tneedtounplugtheirgamingconsolesjustyet,expertssay:screentimeprobablywon'tmeltkids'brains.InanaddressattheScienceMediaCenterinLondon,biologicalpsychologistPeterEtchellssaidevidenceagainsttechnologyuseis"premature,"andtheWorldHealthOrganization'srecentclassificationofgamingdisordercould"pathologize"ahobbythatmightnotbeasharmfulashealthofficialswarn."Idon'tthinkpolicyshouldbeinformedbymoralpanics,whichiswhatitfeelslikeishappeningatthemoment,"hesaid.Existingstudiesonscreenuseshowaweakassociationwithdepressivebehaviors,OxfordresearcherAndyPrzybylskisaid.Thesurveys,whichreliedonchild-orparent-reporteddata,lackresultsofthelong-termeffectsthatlingerafteritsimmediateuse.Removinginternetaccessblockschildrenfromaccessingpublicinformation,Etchellsadded,whichcouldbeseenasa"violationofhumanrights.""Thebestevidencethatwecurrentlyhavereallysuggestssomescreentime,somevideogameplaying,isbetterthannoneatall,particularlyforchildwellbeing,"hesaid.MaxDavie,ahealthpromotionofficerforEngland'sRoyalCollegeofPediatrics,saidwhileevidenceprovesthelinkbetweenexcessivedeviceuseandobesityandpoorsleep,thesolutionstartswithparents.PanicaboutexcessivedeviceusespreadacrosstheU.K.whentheBritishHealthServiceblamedaburgeoningmentalhealthcrisisamongteensontechnologyandsocialmedia.Inresponsetoconcernsaboutdigitaloveruse(thevideogameFortnitehascausedthegreateststirrecently),schoolshaveadoptednewguidelinesforlimitingstudents'digitaldevices,whileFrancebannedthemfromschoolpropertycompletely.TheAmericanAcademyofPediatricsreleasedrecommendedscreentimelimitsin2016,whichsuggestedonehourperdayof"high-qualityprogramming"forkidsages2to5and"consistentlimits"onolderchildren'stechnologyuse.Astudypublishedthefollowingyearcalledthelimits"toorestrictive"andsaidparentalinvolvementindigitalactivitiesmatteredmorethantheamountofscreentime.Expertshavesoughtmoresubstantialevidencefordevices'detrimentbeforeWHOofficiallydeclaredgamingaddictionanillness.DevelopmentalpsychologistSueFletcher-Watsoncriticizedtheuseof"screentime"asanumbrellatermthatdidn'tdifferentiatechildren'sdigitalactivitiesandnotedmanyolderchildrenusetheinternettotalkwithfriendsorlearnmoreabouttheirworld.Screentimecanenhancecognitivedevelopmentiftheactivityis"highquality."Age-specificprogramscanimproveliteracyandevenfosterpositiveracialattitudesandcreativity.Parent-childco-viewingandaskingquestionspromptedbytheprogrammingisanotherpsychologist-approvedtechniquetoengagechildrenwithtechnologyinahealthyway.Aseducationbecomesincreasinglydigital,screentimeisnowabuilt-infeatureofschool:homeworkassignmentsrelyonGoogle,computerprogramsprimestudentsforstandardizedtestsanddigitizedtextbookscutcosts.SomeschoolsprovidestudentswiththeirowniPads,courtesyofthedistrict,andencouragetheiruseintheclassroomandathomewithparents.
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单选题.
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单选题 It was the frog that pushed me over the edge
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单选题
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单选题 I was nearly killed on Boxing Day
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单选题Questions16to20arebasedonthefollowingtalk.
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单选题
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